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    Phlebitis or venitis Thrombophlebitis Behandlung the inflammation of a veinusually in the legs. It most commonly occurs in superficial veins. Phlebitis often occurs in conjunction with thrombosis and is then called thrombophlebitis or superficial thrombophlebitis.

    Unlike deep vein thrombosisthe probability that superficial thrombophlebitis will cause a clot to break up and be transported in pieces to the lung is very low. Phlebitis is typically caused Thrombophlebitis Behandlung local trauma to a vein, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, usually from the insertion of an intravenous catheter, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung.

    Phlebitis can also result from certain medications and drugs that irritate the veins, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung as desomorphine.

    Superficial phlebitis often presents as an early sign in thromboangiitis obliterans Buerger's diseaseThrombophlebitis Behandlung, a vasculitis that affects small and medium-sized arteries and veins in distal extremities often associated with cigarette smoking. For acute infusion superficial thrombophlebitis, not enough evidence exists as of to determine treatment.

    Phlebitis was first described by the Scottish surgeon John Hunter in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. Retrieved 13 May Retrieved 30 May The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Cardiovascular disease vessels I70—I99— Arteritis Aortitis Buerger's disease. Carotid artery stenosis Renal artery stenosis. Aortoiliac occlusive disease Degos disease Erythromelalgia Fibromuscular dysplasia Raynaud's phenomenon. Arteriovenous fistula Arteriovenous malformation Telangiectasia Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Cherry hemangioma Halo nevus Spider angioma, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung. Chronic venous insufficiency Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Superior vena cava syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome Venous ulcer.

    Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive Wunden Vitamine Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary Krampfadern ICD Renovascular hypertension Benign hypertension Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung.

    Lysosome granules biogenic amines Histamine Serotonin. Macrophage Epithelioid cell Giant cell Granuloma. Rubor Calor Tumor Dolor Functio laesa, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung.

    Hepatitis Ascending cholangitis Cholecystitis Pancreatitis Peritonitis. Dermatitis Folliculitis Cellulitis Hidradenitis. Insulitis Hypophysitis Thyroiditis Parathyroiditis Adrenalitis. Retrieved from " https: Articles to be expanded from December All articles to be expanded Articles with empty sections from December All articles with empty sections Articles using small message boxes.

    Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 16 Novemberat Thrombophlebitis Behandlung using Thrombophlebitis Behandlung site, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Inflammation Arteritis Aortitis Buerger's disease.

    Hypertension Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension Ob Alkohol mit Krampfadern hypertension Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension.


    Thrombophlebitis: Superficial vs Migratory, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment Thrombophlebitis Behandlung

    May 15, Author: Duplex ultrasonographic scanning gives an accurate appraisal of the extent of disease and thus allows the administration of a more rational therapy. For the superficial, localized, mildly tender area of thrombophlebitis that occurs in a varicose Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, treatment with mild analgesics, such as aspirin, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, and the use of some type of elastic support usually are sufficient.

    Patients are encouraged to continue their usual daily activities. If extensive varicosities are present or if symptoms persist, phlebectomy of the involved segment may be indicated. More severe thrombophlebitis, as indicated by the degree of pain, redness, and the extent of the abnormality, should be treated with elevation Thrombophlebitis Behandlung the extremity and the application of massive, hot, wet compresses. The latter measure seems to be more effective when a large, bulky dressing, including a blanket and plastic sheeting followed by hot water bottles, is used, taking care to avoid burning Thrombophlebitis Behandlung patient.

    Anticoagulants are usually not indicated in superficial thrombophlebitis unless the process extends into the deep venous system [ 23 ] or persistent inflammation Thrombophlebitis Behandlung present in an affected area. In the case of thrombosis of a hemorrhoid, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, evacuation of the thrombus, though very painful, usually provides rapid relief, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung.

    Magnesium sulfate compresses may also be used to alleviate swelling and pain, though surgery is sometimes necessary to remove the clot from the hemorrhoid.

    Long-leg, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, heavy-gauge elastic stockings or multiple elastic Ace bandages are indicated when the patient becomes ambulatory. Gradient compression stockings are an often-overlooked adjunctive therapy that is both benign and effective.

    Gradient compression hose are highly elastic stockings that provide a gradient of compression that is highest at the toes at least mm Hg and gradually decreases to the level of the thigh. Gradient compression hose also have been shown to increase local and regional intrinsic fibrinolytic activity. In the early phases of superficial thrombophlebitis in the leg, dangling the extremity without external support from stockings or elastic bandages leads to leg swelling and increased pain.

    Current treatment options are aimed at resolving symptoms, preventing recurrence and most importantly, and preventing extension to the deep venous system, which may potentially result in a thromboembolism. Previous treatment options were based on a Cochrane review published in that showed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs and low-molecular-weight heparin LMWH are the first options. A Thrombophlebitis Behandlung Cochrane review published in added, among others, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, a large randomized control study that included more than patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and compared fondaparinux with placebo.

    Thrombophlebitis Behandlung investigators found fondaparinux to be a good option for treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis and prevention of some of its associated complications. Fondaparinux is a newer anticoagulant that was derived from the binding region of heparin and antithrombin. It is an inhibitor of factor Xa, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, and its main uses are the same as those of heparin—more specifically, prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism PE.

    Fondaparinux is not shown to interact with platelets and platelet factor 4 and thus theoretically should Bio-Aufkleber für fei boo von Krampfadern Körper Bewertungen cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia HIT. Its main advantage over heparin or LMWH is that its bioavailability and half-life hours allow once-daily dosing.

    As noted see abovefondaparinux has been shown to achieve significant reductions in the extension of superficial thrombophlebitis into the deeper venous systems and the rate of recurrence in general, as well as to reduce the symptoms of venous thromboembolism when compared to placebo [ 26 ] ; however, there was no difference with trophischen Geschwüren an den Bein Symptome und Behandlung to the rates of major bleeding, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung.

    To date, no studies have been done to compare the efficacy of fondaparinux with that Thrombophlebitis Behandlung heparin Thrombophlebitis Behandlung LMWH in superficial thrombophlebitis. Use of the lowest dosage of fondaparinux 2. At this dosage, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, fondaparinux has not been shown to affect activated partial thromboplastin time aPTTprothrombin time PTor bleeding time, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung. Fondaparinux should be avoided in patients with kidney function compromise, active bleeding, bacterial endocarditis, and body weight below 50 kg.

    One Thrombophlebitis Behandlung to the use of fondaparinux is that there is currently no antidote, especially for the low dosage used for superficial thrombophlebitis treatment. The Cochrane review cited above suggested that anticoagulation with LMWH is better in reducing local signs and symptoms, along with reducing propagation to deep venous thrombosis DVT. Patients with contraindications to anticoagulation or those receiving adequate anticoagulation treatment who have progression of thrombosis should be considered for saphenous ligation at Thrombophlebitis Behandlung junction with the deep venous system.

    The efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs is similar to that of LMWH in reducing the risk of extension of superficial thrombophlebitis into the deep venous system along with decreasing recurrence. Antibiotics are not routinely indicated for treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis, in that the erythema and tenderness are local inflammatory reactions, not allergic reactions.

    However, if suppurative thrombophlebitis may be present, then antibiotics should cover skin flora and anaerobic organisms, especially if an abscess is present. One should also consider coverage with vancomycin for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA if the local population warrants this. No adequate studies have been performed on the use of local thrombolytics, and they were excluded from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews article.

    Therefore, at this time, their use is not recommended. In a study, Ascher et al reported that A meta-analysis of the prevalence of DVT and PE in patients with superficial vein thrombosis found a weighted mean prevalence of The authors concluded that in selected patients with superficial thrombophlebitis, screening for DVT or PE may be warranted.

    Optimal treatment of saphenous vein thrombosis remains controversial. As noted by Wichers et al in a systematic review, a lack of randomized trials has prevented evidence-based recommendations in this area. In a small, randomized trial of 60 patients with great saphenous vein thrombosis, Lozano et al compared treatment using LMWH with surgical saphenous ligation. In the study, patients were randomized to one of the three groups; all patients Thrombophlebitis Behandlung compression stockings.

    Similar to the outcome of the above study, Wichers et die haben einen starken Krampf concluded, after a systematic review of the literature, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, that LMWH or NSAID therapy appears to reduce the incidence of superficial venous thrombosis extension or recurrence.

    Treating patients with some form of low- or intermediate-dose anticoagulation appears reasonable at this time; this should be followed by repeat duplex ultrasonography to look for progression at regular intervals for a few weeks to a month.

    In patients with stable nonprogressing thrombus, anticoagulation therapy can probably be discontinued in the Thrombophlebitis Behandlung of other risk factors.

    With persistence or spread of the process, the thrombophlebitic vein may be excised, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung. This is usually performed through a direct incision over the vein, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, allowing removal of the infected thrombosed segment along with wide debridement Thrombophlebitis Behandlung any surrounding infected or necrotic tissue.

    Cultures are sent to guide antibiotic therapy. Surgical treatment may also be considered for patients with saphenous thrombophlebitis. This is most often considered if the process extends upward toward the femoral or popliteal vein despite anticoagulation or in a patient with a contraindication to systemic anticoagulation. Whether surgical ligation or anticoagulation is the best initial treatment for saphenous vein thrombosis without deep venous involvement remains controversial, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung.

    If saphenous ligation is chosen, high ligation at the saphenofemoral or saphenopopliteal junction is recommended, with ligation of any branches near the junction, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung.

    For saphenopopliteal procedures, ultrasonographic mapping for guidance is recommended because of the variability in location of the saphenopopliteal anatomy. Thrombophlebitis Behandlung painful section of a superficial vein containing a palpable intravascular coagulum may be treated by puncture incision with an gauge needle and evacuation of the clot after local anesthesia.

    This procedure often produces marked rapid relief and rapid resolution of the inflammation, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung. Puncture and evacuation is less effective in the first week after the onset of symptoms, Thrombophlebitis Behandlung, because the vessel wall is thickened and the coagulum itself is more cohesive during the early phase of phlebitis.

    If thrombophlebitis is associated with a cannula or a catheter, the device should be immediately removed and cultured. If suppurative thrombophlebitis is suspected, immediate and complete excision of all of the involved veins is indicated. The wound may be left packed open for secondary closure or skin grafting at a later date. The use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is always indicated.

    If the suppurative process involves one of the deep veins, aggressive antimicrobial and anticoagulant Thrombophlebitis Behandlung are necessary. If a venous segment involved in superficial thrombophlebitis is suspected to be a source of bacteremia but does not require excision, it can be aspirated in order to culture the contents of the venous lumen. This may be helpful in immunocompromised patients with phlebothrombosis and positive blood cultures.

    Follow-up should be performed days after treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis, either with an office visit or by telephone, to be sure that the patient is progressing in a satisfactory manner.

    An unexpectedly high Thrombophlebitis Behandlung of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. The veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: With particular reference to arteriovenous anastomosis as a cure for the condition. Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. University of Nagoya Press; Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Thrombophlebitis Behandlung related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature.

    Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and thrombosis. Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha. Am J Emerg Med.

    Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Am J Med Sci. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: Carcinoma Thrombophlebitis Behandlung venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis. Nazir SS, Khan M. Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease: A case report and Thrombophlebitis Behandlung of the literature.

    Traumatic thrombophlebitis of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis: Srp Arh Celok Lek. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Superficial thrombophlebitis and risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism. Protein S deficiency in repetitive superficial thrombophlebitis. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. Superficial thrombophlebitis diagnosed by duplex scanning.

    Bergqvist D, Jaroszewski H. Deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Superficial venous thrombosis and compression ultrasound imaging. Fondaparinux reduces VTE and recurrence in superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis Behandlung the leg.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Fondaparinux for the treatment of superficial-vein thrombosis in the legs.


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